You may be referring to something called joint proprioception. Proprioception describes the joint's ability to tell that it is moving, how far and how fast it's moving, and in what direction. This skill allows you to feel when you've stepped on a rock, when you're walking on an incline, or when you've changed directions.
Scientists think the loss of proprioception after ankle sprain puts you at risk for another sprain. Retraining the joint may help prevent further injuries.
Rehab after ankle sprain is usually directed by a physical therapist. A variety of methods are used to retrain the joint. Much of the program can be done at home or at the gym.